TEDx演講 | 你看一部電影時 聽到的聲音幾乎都是假的 16′38

TED博物館2021-03-06 09:25:05

在日漸浮躁的今天

我們不盲從、不封閉、不惡意評判

用TED 開闊視野

Everything you hear on film is a lie

TED簡介:2016 |?音效設計是在騙局的基礎上建立的——當你看一部電影或者一個電視節目時,你聽到的所有聲音幾乎都是假的。在這個圍繞音效的演講中,塔索斯·弗蘭佐拉斯將帶你探索聲音在敘事中的作用,然后你就能知道你的大腦是多么容易被聽覺所蒙騙。


演講者Tasos Frantzolas

片長:16:38

下載MP3音頻方法:到網易云音樂搜索:TED博物館

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中英對照翻譯

I want to start by doing an experiment. I'mgoing to play three videos of a rainy day. But I've replaced the audio of oneof the videos, and instead of the sound of rain, I've added the sound of baconfrying. So I want you think carefully which one the clip with the bacon is.

我想用一個實驗來開始我的演講。我將給你們播放三段雨天的視頻。不過我把其中一個視頻里的 音頻換成了別的,它不再是下雨的聲音,變成了煎培根的聲音。我想讓你們認真聽,找出哪個視頻里是煎培根聲。


(Rain falls)

(Rain falls)

(Rain falls)

All right. Actually, I lied. They're allbacon.(Bacon sizzles)

(下雨聲)

(下雨聲)

(下雨聲)

好的。其實,我撒謊了。這些全都是煎培根的聲音。(培根滋油聲)


My point here isn't really to make youhungry every time you see a rainy scene, but it's to show that our brains areconditioned to embrace the lies. We're not looking for accuracy.

我的目的并不是讓你們每次看到下雨 都覺得肚子餓,而是想告訴你們我們的大腦 習慣于接受這些假象。我們關注的并不是準確度。


So on the subject of deception, I wanted toquote one of my favorite authors. In "The Decay of Lying," OscarWilde establishes the idea that all bad art comes from copying nature and beingrealistic; and all great art comes from lying and deceiving, and tellingbeautiful, untrue things. So when you're watching a movie and a phone rings,it's not actually ringing. It's been added later in postproduction in a studio.All of the sounds you hear are fake. Everything, apart from the dialogue, isfake. When you watch a movie and you see a bird flapping its wings --(Wings flap)

在造假的這個主題里,我想引用我最喜歡的一位作家的話。在“謊言的衰變”中,奧斯卡·王爾德有這樣的結論,所有糟糕的藝術都源于 刻板的復制自然和現實;那些偉大的藝術都是依靠造假和騙術,敘說著美麗的,不真實的東西。所以,當你在觀看電影時,電話鈴響了,那不是真正的電話鈴響。都是在后期制作中加進去的。所有的聲音都是假的。除了那些對話,所有的聲音都是假的。看電影的時候你看到一只鳥 在拍打著它的翅膀——(翅膀拍打聲)


They haven't really recorded the bird. Itsounds a lot more realistic if you record a sheet or shaking kitchen gloves.(Flaps)

他們并沒真正去給那只鳥錄音。實際上只是拍打一張紙,或抖動廚房手套的聲音。(拍打聲)


The burning of a cigarette up close --(Cigarette burns)

近距離的香煙燃燒——(香煙燃燒)


It actually sounds a lot more authentic ifyou take a small Saran Wrap ball and release it.(A Saran Warp ball being released)

?其實如果你緊握著一個 團成球的保鮮膜,然后松開,那個聲音會更真實。(團成球的保鮮膜被放開的聲音)


Punches?(Punch)

拳打的聲音?(拳打聲)


Oops, let me play that again.(Punch)

讓我再放一遍。(拳打聲)

?

That's often done by sticking a knife invegetables, usually cabbage.

(Cabbage stabbed with a knife)

那其實是把刀插入蔬菜的聲音,一般是卷心菜。(刀插入卷心菜的聲音)


The next one -- it's breaking bones.(Bones break)

下一個,是骨頭斷裂聲。(骨頭斷裂的聲音)


Well, no one was really harmed. It'sactually ... breaking celery or frozen lettuce.

(Breaking frozen lettuce or celery)

當然了,并沒有人真的受傷。其實這是—— 掰芹菜或凍生菜的聲音。(掰凍芹菜或生菜的聲音) (在布魯克林他們用的是羽衣甘藍)


Making the right sounds is not always aseasy as a trip to the supermarket and going to the vegetable section. But it'soften a lot more complicated than that. So let's reverse-engineer together thecreation of a sound effect.

制作真實的聲音并不總是 像去超市買菜 那樣簡單。其實往往要比那難很多。那么,讓我們一起用逆向工程體驗一下 制作一個音效的過程。


One of my favorite stories comes from FrankSerafine. He's a contributor to our library, and a great sound designer for"Tron" and "Star Trek" and others. He was part of theParamount team that won the Oscar for best sound for "The Hunt for RedOctober." In this Cold War classic, in the '90s, they were asked toproduce the sound of the propeller of the submarine.?

我最喜歡的段子之一來自于弗蘭克·塞拉凡尼。他是我們音效庫的貢獻者之一,也是“創:戰記”和“星際迷航” 及其他作品的偉大音效設計師。他是派拉蒙公司那個 贏得奧斯卡的“獵殺紅色十月”的 音效團隊中的一員。在這個九十年代的,描述冷戰期的經典影片里,他們需要制作潛水艇螺旋槳的聲音。


So they had a small problem: they couldn't really find a submarine in West Hollywood. So basically,what they did is, they went to a friend's swimming pool, and Frank performed acannonball, or bomba. They placed an underwater mic and an overhead mic outsidethe swimming pool. So here's what the underwater mic sounds like.(Underwater plunge)

但他們遇到一個小困難,他們當時在西好萊塢,找不到潛水艇。因此,簡單來說,他們想了這么個法子,他們去了一個朋友的游泳池,弗蘭克表演了一次炮彈入水。他們安裝了一個水下麥克,還有游泳池外的水上麥克。這是水下麥克錄下的聲音。(水下跳水聲)


Adding the overhead mic, it sounded a bitlike this:(Water splashes)

加上水上麥克的聲音后,它聽起來是這樣的:(水花四濺聲)


So now they took the sound and pitched itone octave down, sort of like slowing down a record.(Water splashes at lower octave) And thenthey removed a lot of the high frequencies.(Water splashes) And pitched it downanother octave.(Water splashes at lower octave) And thenthey added a little bit of the splash from the overhead microphone.(Water splashes) And by looping andrepeating that sound, they got this:(Propeller churns)

他們拿到這個聲音后,把它降了一個八度,就好像慢放一個錄音。(低八度后的水花四濺聲) 然后他們把很多高頻的聲音去掉。(水花聲) 然后再降一個八度。(又降一個八度的水花聲) 然后他們又加入了一點點 水面上錄制的水花四濺聲。(水花聲) 然后循環,反復播放,他們最終得到了這種效果:(螺旋槳聲)


So, creativity and technology put togetherin order to create the illusion that we're inside the submarine.

看吧,創造力和技術結合后能創造我們身在潛水艇里的假象。


But once you've created your sounds andyou've synced them to the image, you want those sounds to live in the world ofthe story. And one the best ways to do that is to add reverb. So this is thefirst audio tool I want to talk about. Reverberation, or reverb, is thepersistence of the sound after the original sound has ended. So it's sort oflike the -- all the reflections from the materials, the objects and the wallsaround the sound.

不過,當你創造了聲音 并和畫面同步后,你希望這些聲音可以在 敘事的世界中變得鮮活。最好的方法之一是加一點回響。這是我要談的第一個音效手段。在原聲結束后加入回響或混響可以延續聲音。所以這就像是 來自環繞在聲音周圍的 物體和墻的全部反射。


Take, for example, the sound of a gunshot.The original sound is less than half a second long.(Gunshot) By adding reverb, we can make itsound like it was recorded inside a bathroom.(Gunshot reverbs in bathroom) Or like itwas recorded inside a chapel or a church.(Gunshot reverbs church)Or in a canyon.(Gunshot reverbs in canyon)

舉個例子,槍聲。原聲只有不到半秒的時間。(槍聲) 加上回響后,我們可以做出好像在浴室里錄制的聲音。(槍聲在浴室里回響) 或者像是在禮拜堂或 教堂里錄制的聲音。(槍聲在教堂里回響)或者在大峽谷。?(槍聲在峽谷里回響)


So reverb gives us a lot of informationabout the space between the listener and the original sound source. If thesound is the taste, then reverb is sort of like the smell of the sound.

回響給了我們很多關于聽者和聲音來源 之間的空間的信息。如果把聲音當成是味覺,回音就像是聲音的氣味。


But reverb can do a lot more. Listening toa sound with a lot less reverberation than the on-screen action is going toimmediately signify to us that we're listening to a commentator, to anobjective narrator that's not participating in the on-screen action. Also,emotionally intimate moments in cinema are often heard with zero reverb,because that's how it would sound if someone was speaking inside our ear.

回響還有很多其他的用處。聽一個很少有回響的聲音 而不看屏幕上的動作 將會立即讓我們覺得 我們在聽一位解說員說話,在聽一位并未參與電影動作的旁白者說話。另外,在電影院中的動情時刻 通常聽不到任何回響,因為那樣才會聽上去 像有人在我們耳朵里說話。


On the completely other side, adding a lotof reverb to a voice is going to make us think that we're listening to aflashback, or perhaps that we're inside the head of a character or that we'relistening to the voice of God. Or, even more powerful in film, Morgan Freeman.

在完全相反的情況下,在語音里加入很多回響 會使我們感覺正在聽回憶,或者好像我們正在 一個角色的大腦中,或者在聽上帝的聲音。或者是在電影里更強大的摩根·費里曼。


So --But what are some other tools or hacks thatsound designers use? Well, here's a really big one. It's silence. A few momentsof silence is going to make us pay attention. And in the Western world, we'renot really used to verbal silences. They're considered awkward or rude.?

那么——還有什么其他手段或是方式 是音效師在使用的呢? 這里有一個很重要的。就是無聲。短暫的安靜無聲使我們集中注意力。在西方世界里,我們不太習慣在對話時安靜下來。人們會覺得奇怪或無禮。


So silence preceding verbal communication can create a lot of tension. But imaginea really big Hollywood movie, where it's full of explosions and automatic guns.Loud stops being loud anymore, after a while. So in a yin-yang way, silenceneeds loudness and loudness needs silence for either of them to have any effect.

因此,使一段正在進行的對話變成無聲可以制造很多緊張感。但是想象一下在好萊塢大片中 全都是爆炸和機槍聲。嘈雜的聲音過一會兒就不覺得嘈雜了。就像陰陽理論中說的 無聲需要嘈雜,嘈雜也需要無聲 (靜中有動,動中有靜),兩者相輔相成。


But what does silence mean? Well, itdepends how it's used in each film. Silence can place us inside the head of acharacter or provoke thought. We often relate silences with ... contemplation,meditation, being deep in thought. But apart from having one meaning, silencebecomes a blank canvas upon which the viewer is invited to the paint their ownthoughts.

那么無聲意味著什么呢? 這取決于每個電影如何使用它。無聲可以讓我們進入角色的思緒,或是引發思考。我們通常從無聲聯想到—— 凝視,冥想,陷入深思。但是,并不是只有一種意義,無聲是一塊空白的畫布,讓觀看的人把自己的想法畫上去。


But I want to make it clear: there is nosuch thing as silence. And I know this sounds like the most pretentious TEDTalk statement ever. But even if you were to enter a room with zeroreverberation and zero external sounds, you would still be able to hear thepumping of your own blood. And in cinema, traditionally, there was never asilent moment because of the sound of the projector. And even in today's Dolbyworld, there's not really any moment of silence if you listen around you.There's always some sort of noise.

我要說清楚的是,并不存在一種叫做無聲的東西。我知道這說法聽起來 差不多是TED里最自負的。但是,即使你進入一個沒有任何回響的房間,也完全沒有外部聲音,你仍然可以聽到自己血液流動的聲音。歷史上,電影院里從來沒有無聲的時刻,因為放映機會發出聲音。即使是在如今的杜比音響世界,如果你傾聽四周,沒有一刻是無聲的。總會有某種噪音存在。


Now, since there's no such thing assilence, what do filmmakers and sound designers use? Well, as a synonym, theyoften use ambiences. Ambiences are the unique background sounds that arespecific to each location. Each location has a unique sound, and each room hasa unique sound, which is called room tone. So here's a recording of a market inMorocco.(Voices, music)And here's a recording of Times Square inNew York.(Traffic sounds, car horns, voices)

現在,既然說沒有真正的無聲,電影制作者和音效設計師用什么呢? 他們通常用氛圍聲,跟“無聲”差不多。氛圍聲是獨特的背景音,具體到每一個地點的背景音。每個地點都有獨特的聲音,每個空間也有獨特的聲音,這叫做環境聲。這是在摩洛哥的一家市場里的錄音。(說話聲,音樂)這是在紐約時代廣場的錄音。(交通聲,車喇叭聲,說話聲)


Room tone is the addition of all the noisesinside the room: the ventilation, the heating, the fridge. Here's a recordingof my apartment in Brooklyn.(You can hear the ventilation, the boiler,the fridge and street traffic)

環境聲是房間里所有噪音的疊加: 通風設備,供暖設備,冰箱。這是我布魯克林區公寓的錄音。(你能聽到排風,熱水器,冰箱,街上的交通)


Ambiences work in a most primal way. Theycan speak directly to our brain subconsciously. So, birds chirping outside yourwindow may indicate normality, perhaps because, as a species, we've been usedto that sound every morning for millions of years.

環境聲以最原始的方式起著作用。它們可以在潛意識里 直接對我們的大腦說話。所以,你窗戶外面的鳥叫可以代表常態。或許因為,我們作為一個物種,數百萬年來,已經習慣每天早上聽到它。


(Birds chirp) On the other hand, industrialsounds have been introduced to us a little more recently. Even though I reallylike them personally -- they've been used by one of my heroes, David Lynch, andhis sound designer, Alan Splet -- industrial sounds often carry negativeconnotations.(Machine noises)

(鳥叫聲) 另一方面,近些年來我們聽到越來越多 工業的聲音。雖然我個人很喜歡工業的聲音——工業的聲音被 我的偶像之一,大衛·林奇,和他的音效師艾林·斯普萊特所采用—— 但工業的聲音常常有負面的意義(機器噪音)



Now, sound effects can tap into ouremotional memory. Occasionally, they can be so significant that they become acharacter in a movie. The sound of thunder may indicate divine intervention oranger.(Thunder)Church bells can remind us of the passingof time, or perhaps our own mortality.(Bells ring)And breaking of glass can indicate the endof a relationship or a friendship.(Glass breaks)

音效還可以進入我們的情感記憶。有時候,它們會特別重要,以至于變成一部電影的角色。雷聲可以代表上天的干預或憤怒。(打雷聲)教堂鐘聲可以提醒我們時光流逝,或者也許提醒我們自己的死亡。(鐘聲)玻璃破碎的聲音可以表示一段愛情或友誼的結束。(玻璃破碎聲)


Scientists believe that dissonant sounds,for example, brass or wind instruments played very loud, may remind us ofanimal howls in nature and therefore create a sense of irritation or fear.(Brass and wind instruments play)

科學家相信,刺耳的聲音,例如銅管樂器聲或管樂器 演奏的巨大聲響,會讓我們想到大自然中動物的叫聲,因此可以制造刺激或恐懼的感覺。(銅管樂器演奏聲)


So now we've spoken about on-screen sounds.But occasionally, the source of a sound cannot be seen. That's what we calloffscreen sounds, or "acousmatic." Acousmatic sounds -- well, theterm "acousmatic" comes from Pythagoras in ancient Greece, who usedto teach behind a veil or curtain for years, not revealing himself to hisdisciples.?

那么,我們已經談到了屏幕上的聲音。但有時候,聲源是看不到的。我們稱之為畫外音,或者是“盲聽”。盲聽的聲音—— “盲聽”一詞來自古希臘的畢達哥拉斯,他曾在面紗或簾子后面教學多年,從未在門徒面前現身。


I think the mathematician and philosopher thought that, in that way,his students might focus more on the voice, and his words and its meaning,rather than the visual of him speaking. So sort of like the Wizard of Oz, or"1984's" Big Brother, separating the voice from its source,separating cause and effect sort of creates a sense of ubiquity or panopticism,and therefore, authority.

我想這位數學家兼哲學家認為,采用那種教學方法,他的學生會更專注于語音,專注于他的詞語及其意義,而不是專注于他講話時的樣子。有點像“綠野仙蹤”(Oz國的魔法師),或是電影“1984”的“老大哥”,把語音和來源分開,把因和果分開,就像制造一種無處不在或全景環視的感覺,因此產生了權威感。


There's a strong tradition of acousmatic sound.Nuns in monasteries in Rome and Venice used to sing in rooms up in galleriesclose to the ceiling, creating the illusion that we're listening to angels upin the sky. Richard Wagner famously created the hidden orchestra that wasplaced in a pit between the stage and the audience. And one of my heroes, AphexTwin, famously hid in dark corners of clubs.

盲聽聲音有一個強大的傳統。羅馬和威尼斯的修道院里的修女 往往在接近天花板的頂層房間里唱歌,制造出一種我們正在聆聽 天空中的天使歌唱的幻覺。理查德·瓦格納創造出了著名的 隱藏起來的管弦樂隊,樂隊被安排在舞臺 與觀眾之間的一處區域。我的偶像之一:埃夫斯·特文 以躲藏在酒吧的黑暗角落而聞名。


I think what all these masters knew is thatby hiding the source, you create a sense of mystery. This has been seen incinema over and over, with Hitchcock, and Ridley Scott in "Alien."Hearing a sound without knowing its source is going to create some sort oftension. Also, it can minimize certain visual restrictions that directors haveand can show something that wasn't there during filming. And if all this soundsa little theoretical, I wanted to play a little video.

我認為這些大師都懂得 通過隱藏聲音來源,來創造神秘的感覺。這種手段你會在電影院里反復看到,希區柯克和雷德利·斯科特 在“外星人”中也有使用。聽到聲音的同時,看不到來源可以產生一定程度的緊迫感。同時,還可以盡量減少 導演的特定視覺限制,并呈現一些 錄制電影時沒有的東西。如果這些聽上去比較理論化,我想播放一個視頻。


(Toy squeaks)

(Typewriter)

(Drums)

(Ping-pong)

(Knives being sharpened)

(Record scratches)

(Saw cuts)

(Woman screams)

(玩具的吱吱聲)

(打字聲)

(敲鼓聲)

(玩乒乓球聲)

(磨刀聲)

(打碟聲)?

(鋸割聲)

(女人尖叫聲)


What I'm sort of trying to demonstrate withthese tools is that sound is a language. It can trick us by transporting usgeographically; it can change the mood; it can set the pace; it can make uslaugh or it can make us scared.

我嘗試用這些手段來表達的是,聲音,是一種語言。它可以使我們感覺 好像移動了地理位置;它可以改變心情;它可以設置步調;它可以讓我們開懷大笑或深感恐懼。


On a personal level, I fell in love withthat language a few years ago, and somehow managed to make it into some sort ofprofession. And I think with our work through the sound library, we're tryingto kind of expand the vocabulary of that language. And in that way, we want tooffer the right tools to sound designers, filmmakers, and video game and appdesigners, to keep telling even better stories and creating even more beautifullies.

對我個人而言,我在幾年前 愛上了這門語言。努力實現了把它當做一種職業。我認為,通過我們的聲音庫的工作,我們在擴展這門語言的詞匯。并且用這種方法,我們希望提供合適的呈現手段 給音效設計師,電影制作人,以及視頻游戲和應用軟件設計者,讓他們講述更加完美的故事,并創造更加美麗的假象。


So thanks for listening.(Applause)

謝謝大家的聆聽。(鼓掌)



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