改革開放40周年 | 我伴中國工程走向世界創新舞臺的中心(雙語)

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文/庫瑪·巴塔查雅(Lord?Kumar?Bhattacharyya)

譯/張全超


My?Journey?with?China?to?the?Center?of?Global?Innovation


庫瑪·巴塔查雅Lord?Kumar?Bhattacharyya):材料專家、英國華威大學制造工程學院創始人、院長,英國皇家勛爵、上議院議員,曾任多位英國首相的工業和科技顧問、南非及印度政府科技顧問。2017年獲中國政府友誼獎、北京市人民政府“長城友誼獎”。圖為1982年巴塔查雅在北京留影。


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1982年,我就感受到了中國工程的能量

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1982年,身負交流英國高端科學和工業技術的使命,我第一次訪問中國,來到了北京。那時候,我便感受到中國科技的巨大進步即將改變世界。

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巴塔查雅勛爵(左一)在實驗室與學生交流

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中國工程有一股能量,一種真正的創新激情,以及一種通過技術成果快速改善工業和社會現狀的渴望。我也下定決心,盡自己所能,全力支持中國實現這一變革。


我清楚地看到,一個繁榮、創新、技術先進的中國不僅可以提高本國人民的生活水平,還將促進世界繁榮,加快全球科技進步。同樣清楚的是,那時候一旦與國外科學家合作,中國的工程技術知識可以為世界帶來新見解,推動技術進步。

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給我留下特別深刻印象的是當時的航天工業部的中國工程師。出于欽佩,1985年,我邀請了一批中國工程師到英國,與我所在的英國華威大學制造工程學院(Warwick?Manufacturing?Group,以下簡稱WMG)的工程師一起工作。為此,我們雙方都邁出了很大一步。因為在20世紀80年代,中國和西方大學之間基本上沒有技術合作。我們開啟這段旅程時,對合作既疑慮又激動。

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但是很快我們一起合作將計算機輔助設計這一先進技術應用在中國航天領域。我們相互學習,互利共贏。從那以后,我訪問了中國30多次,與北京、廣州、哈爾濱、上海和武漢等地的商界、政府、科學界的領導人合作。每一次訪問,我都覺得我們從彼此身上學到了一些東西,也因此收獲了很多。

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In 1982, I Saw the Energy of Chinese Engineering


My very first visit to China was in 1982, as part of a high-level British scientific and industrial mission to Beijing. I immedi- ately saw on that first visit that a great era of Chinese scientific and technological advance was about to transform the world.


There was energy to Chinese engineering, a real passion for innovation, and a desire for the rapid improvement in industry and society that technical achievement could bring about. I de- cided to do all I could to support that transformation.


It was clear to me that a prosperous, innovative, technologically advanced China would not only lift living standards for Chi- nese citizens but would also mean more prosperity and faster global scientific advance for the rest of the world. It was also clear, back on that first visit that China had engineering exper- tise which could lead to new insights and advances in collabora- tion with international scientists.


I was particularly impressed with the engineers working with the Ministry of Astronautics. That admiration led me to invite a select group of Chinese engineers to Britain to work with our Warwick Manufacturing Group engineers in 1985. It was a bold step for us both. Few technology partnerships existed between China and western universities in the 1980s. There was as much doubt as excitement over the journey we began together.


But together we helped apply computer aided design advances to support Chinese Astronautics. We learned from each other and we both gained as a result. Since then, Ive visited China more than thirty times, working alongside business, govern- ment and science leaders in Beijing, Guangzhou, Harbin, Shanghai and Wuhan. Every single visit, Ive felt weve learned a little more from each other - and weve gained a lot as a result.


最初的成功使我們有機會與中國國家外國專家局合作,為更多的中國學生和管理人員提供先進的工程教育。兩萬多名中國科學家、學生、工人從WMG教育項目中受益。我非常感謝國家外國專家局對我們的幫助,包括幫助我們開拓在華新業務、發展壯大我們的機構。沒有他們的參與,我們根本就不可能知道潛在合作伙伴在哪里,或者哪里有創新。畢竟像中國這么大的國家,人口稠密,容易讓人望而卻步,這里有太多的可能性,如果沒有人來引導,很容易迷失方向。

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在國家外國專家局的幫助下,我們與中國最具創新力的一些企業建立了培訓和研究合作關系,包括:中國航空工業集團公司、中國航天科技集團有限公司、北京科技研究院等。到現在,我們在中國約有兩百家合作伙伴。

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我們的許多學者都在學術界頗有建樹。還有一些人建立了自己的公司,創造了就業機會并推動著經濟的發展,比如金拓公司的亨利·曾和創科實業公司的鐘志平博士。我堅信,未來我們還將培養更多這樣的人才。這一進步也與中國人目光長遠有關。畢竟人們容易急功近利,把重點放在眼前利益上。但是沒有投入就不會進步,中國研發經費比歐洲所有國家都多。

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經濟合作與發展組織(OECD)說,中國很快就會成為全球最重要的創新主體。這句話很快就得到驗證。然而,中國對技術的關注不單單體現在財政支持上,對外開放也是重要因素。對不同觀點保持開放的態度,重視外界提出的意見與見解。正因為改革開放,使得中國航空工業集團公司設計制造出了J-31Gyrfalcon第五代隱形戰機這樣具有尖端技術的產品;正因為改革開放,使中關村涌現出了像聯想、浪潮這樣的世界計算領域的領軍企業。


Our initial successes gave us the opportunity to work with SAFEA to offer advanced engineering education to more Chi- nese graduates and managers. More than twenty thousand Chinese students, workers and scientists have benefitted from?WMG education programmes. Im so thankful for the contribu- tion of SAFEA helping us reach out to new businesses and growing institutions. Without their participation, it would be so much harder to know who is looking for a partnership, or where innovative work is happening. After all, China is a daunting as it is populous, and there is so much possibility here that with- out a guide, it can overwhelm you!


Thanks to our work with SAFEA, weve built training and research partnerships with some of Chinas most innovative businesses, including AVIC -the Aviation Industry Corporation, China Aerospace and BJAST Beijing Academy of Science and Technology. In fact, we now work with around two hundred different Chinese companies.


Many of our scholars have reached senior positions in aca- demia. Many others have built companies that have created jobs and prosperity, like Henry Tseng of Kingtronics and Dr Roy Chung of TTI. In future, I know there will be many more such successes. Perhaps the Chinese ability to think for the long term has driven this progress. It would have been easy to focus on immediate needs. But you cannot advance without investment. The strategy has delivered many times over. Chinas Research and Development Budget is now larger than all of Europes.


The OECD says that China will soon be the worlds most signifi- cant innovator. Again. Yet it would be a mistake to see Chinas focus on technology in merely financial terms. It is as much a product of a willingness to look outwards. To be open to other?perspectives. To value the insights outsiders can offer. From that choice came Chinese designed products as technically so- phisticated as AVICs new J-31 Gyrfalcon fifth-generation stealth fighter. From that choice came Zhongguancuns leaders in world computing, such as Lenovo and Langsoon.


在中國,工程師得到了更多尊重

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30多年來,能夠持續參與中國改革創新,令我興奮不已。回想第一次來訪中國時的興奮和激動,大概是因為了解到中國許多領導人都是工程師,而我自己,也是一名工程師。后來在這些年里,我意識到中國人對實用型創新的重視根深蒂固。作為中國的常客,我開始認識到四大發明是人類進步的里程碑。作為一名工程師,我了解了中國工程師的豐富歷史。我想起了喬維岳公元984年在修建宋朝運河時發明的“鎖”。13世紀中國鋼鐵爐的驚人進步也著實讓我著迷。

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事實上,無論從哪個角度看,在中國文化和歷史進程中,應用工程對創建和諧社會的貢獻比比皆是。今天也是如此。建設和諧社會離不開科技的進步。我想這與許多中國領導人的實踐經驗是分不開的。

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可悲的是,在歐洲各國,基本上沒有工程師在政府任要職。即使在一些歐洲企業,情況也是如此。但是,在中國工程師得到了更多尊重!這就是為什么我能夠憑借與當時的航天工業部的初步合作關系,1989年,WMG與中國工業界聯合開展了第一個聯合培訓項目。這個項目使三千多名年輕的中國工程師獲得了高級工程師資質。

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這些工程師學成回國后得到了認可。于是,我們與國家外國專家局進一步合作,為更多的中國畢業生和管理人員提供先進的工程教育。兩萬多名中國學生、工人和科學家受益于WMG教育項目。每年,我們招收600名學生和管理人員參加實操層面的短期強化課程。

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In China, Engineers Get More Respect

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To have played a role in this new age of Chinese innovation has been a stimulating and exciting part of my life for over thirty years. I suspect the excitement I felt on my first visit was because, so many of Chinas leaders, I too am an engineer. But over the succeeding years, I realised that Chinas emphasis on practical innovation goes very deep. As a regular visitor to China, I began to recognise the four great inventions as landmarks in human progress. And as an engineer, I have discovered the rich history of Chinese engineers. I think of the invention of the Lock by Qiao Weiyue in 984 when he was working on the Song Dynastys Grand Canal. I was fascinated by the incredible advances of Chi- nese iron and steel furnaces in the thirteenth century.


In fact, wherever you look, Chinese culture and history are rich with evidence of applied engineerings contribution to creating a harmonious society. The same is true today. Science and Tech- nology is helping build a harmonious society. I think perhaps a lot of this is to do with the practical experience of so many Chi- nese leaders.


Sadly, there are very few engineers in senior positions in Eu- ropean governments. Even in European businesses, the same is too often true. In China, engineers get much more respect! Thats why I was able to build on my initial relationship with the ministry of astronautics to create the first joint training programme with Chinese industry at Warwick Manufacturing Group in 1989. That programme helped three thousand young Chinese engineers achieve advanced engineering qualifications.


Their successes on their return home meant that we asked to work with SAFEA to offer advanced engineering education to more Chinese graduates and managers. More than twenty thou- sand Chinese students, workers and scientists have benefitted from WMG education programmes. Each year, we teach over six hundred students and managers on advanced programmes and on short, practically relevant, intensive courses.


全球創新將聚焦中國

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劉延東副總理在訪問WMG時強調了中國對外合作對創新發展的重要性,肯定了中國與WMG的合作。

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劉副總理對合作的肯定讓我再次想起了初次來中國,那時候我就看到了中國科學技術的巨大潛力。30多次訪華后,我看到很多潛力已經實現了,甚至超出預期。這一征程的下一個階段是實現習近平主席提出的“中國夢”,創新是中國發展的核心。“中國制造2025”計劃,更加注重人才、生產質量和環境安全。

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這意味著中國和世界正在進入一個新的角色,全球創新都將聚焦在中國。你的成功將把你帶向世界舞臺。當然,有些人只看眼前。他們只關注一周,一個月,或者一年的事件。但我們需要退一步看看真正重要的趨勢。

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從經濟角度而言,未來十年中國的需求預計將增長4萬億美元。這個影響是驚人的。中國的成功意味著每年將有3000萬輛額外的汽車銷售額。在WMG,我們與捷豹路虎合作密切。他們知道中國對他們未來的發展至關重要。路虎在中國開設了第一家制造工廠,不僅僅是為了出口,更重要的是他們的設計師和工程師必須深入中國客戶實際需求。中國的成功將帶來對快速、可靠、低碳出行的需求,這將導致中國成為永磁同步牽引超高速列車的全球基地。中國的成功意味著即將有10億以上的人通過高速移動互聯網與世界互通,這將改變千里之外的商業圖景。

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在WMG,我們與一位很具有創新意識的英國樂器設計師合作,他主要制作像小號、長號這樣的古典銅管樂器,但是生產材料用的是很先進的塑料,這樣一來可以降低成本并且不污染環境。目前他們的產品在中國制造出口,但他們深知,通過線上銷售將產品賣給中國客戶有很大潛力,對他們未來的發展至關重要。這意味著他們需要中國的設計師和管理者。中國的成功意味著他們將有一個每年超過700億美元收入的穩健市場。

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這種增長將對世界各地的工程技術人員產生影響。中國乃至全球對合格的、嫻熟的和創新的工程師和工人的需求日益增加。全球制造業更加關注中國人的需求,以生產出滿足其需求的產品。更重要的是我們的科研、教育合作伙伴也必須全面了解中國所面臨的機遇和挑戰。我們都要清醒面對共同挑戰,我們必須齊心協力去應對。

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全球經濟的增長將進一步拉動能源需求。2015年,習近平主席訪問了英國,并且強調了可持續和負責任地應對能源需求的重要性。這也是許多中國領導人包括劉延東、馬凱副總理在參觀WMG時,給我的一個重要信息。在WMG,我們不懈地關注這些問題。WMG是英國國家汽車創新中心(NAIC)的總部,這是一個價值9億元人民幣的項目。NAIC將投入4000名科學家和技術人員共同開發更智能、更輕巧、更環保的交通工具。

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我們對高能量密度電池、先進燃料電池和超級電容器的研究將有助于開發低成本、安全和遠程的電動和混合動力汽車。我們在輕質材料和納米復合材料方面的專業知識將有助于降低生產和運輸的能源成本。至關重要的是,我們正在與中國建立強有力的合作關系,致力于開發更加環保、更輕、更智能的汽車技術。

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為了使制造汽車的原材料更環保,我們與首鋼集團、北京科技大學建立了合作伙伴關系。該項目旨在改善鋼鐵行業的熱力和材料回收情況,利用現在被浪費的熱能來為制造過程提供能量。為了讓未來的產品更輕巧,我們與中國科學家建立了合作關系,并且舉辦了首屆中英高分子納米復合材料研討會。

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這些合作關系將確保WMG在碳納米管方面進步和中國在氣凝膠領域的進展,這些將有助于在工業中提供輕質材料。最重要的是,要使這些技術取得成功,我們需要中國企業引導未來的領導者將這些先進技術付諸實踐。


The Focus of Global Innovation Will be In China

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Vice Premier Liu Yandong told me when she visited WMG The collaboration of Chinese organisations working with WMG is key to innovation.

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Vice-Premier Lius belief in collaboration once again reminds me of my first visit to China; I saw the vast potential of Chinese sci- ence and technology. Over my thirty visits since, Ive seen that potential more than fulfilled. The next stage of that journey is?embodied in President Xis Chinese Dream, which puts inno- vation at the heart of Chinese growth. It is seen in action in the Made in China 2025plan, placing ever greater focus on human talent, quality of production, and environmental security.

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This means China -and the world- is entering a new role, where the focus of global innovation will be in China. Your success will draw the world to you. Of course, some people worry about the short term. They focus on the events of a week, or a month, or even a year. But its important to step back and see the trends that truly matter.

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Economically, Chinese demand is projected to grow by four trillion dollars over the next decade. The impact of this is stag- gering. Chinas success means there will be thirty million extra car sales each year. At WMG, we work very closely with Jaguar Land Rover. They know that China is the key to their future. Land Rover has opened their first manufacturing plant in China not merely for export, but because they know their designers and engineers must drive on Chinese roads as part of understanding the needs of Chinese customers. Chinas suc- cess means that the need for fast, reliable, low carbon travel will lead to China being the global home of permanent magnet synchronous traction superfast bullet trains. Chinas success means there will soon be a billion more people connected to high-speed mobile internet. This will change the prospects of businesses thousands of miles away.

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At WMG, we work with an innovative British musical instru- ment designer. They make classical brass instruments such as trumpets and trombones, but from advanced plastics -reduc- ing the cost and environmental impact. Their instruments are manufactured in China for export today, but they know that selling online to Chinese consumers and distributors will be crucial to their future growth. In turn, that means they will need Chinese designers and managers. Chinas success means there will be an annual health and wellness market of over seventy billion dollars.

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Such growth will have consequences for technologists all around the world. It will mean an ever greater need for quali- fied, skilled, innovative engineers and workers, in China and beyond. It will require a greater focus on the needs of the Chi- nese people - making products that better meet their require- ments, designed for their circumstances. Most of all, it will mean that your scientific, research and educational partners must understand the challenges and opportunities China faces in meeting the hopes of her people. We already know the great- est shared challenge we must address together.

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The growth of the global economy will drive energy demand ever higher. In 2015, President Xi visited Britain. He stressed the importance of meeting these energy needs sustainably and responsibly. It is a message I have heard personally from many Chinese leaders - including both Vice-Premier Madame?Liu Yandong and Vice-Premier Ma Kai when they visited us at WMG. At WMG, we are relentlessly focusing on these issues. We are the home of Britains National Automotive Innovation Centre (NAIC), a nine hundred million yuan capital project. NAIC will bring four thousand scientists and technologists to- gether to develop smarter, lighter and greener transport.

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Our research on high energy density batteries, advanced fuel cells and ultracapacitors will help the development of cheap, safe and long-range electric and hybrid vehicles. Our expertise in lightweight materials and nanocomposites will help cut the energy costs of production and of transportation. Crucially, we are building strong partnerships with China on greener, lighter and smarter technologies.

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To make the materials we use in car-making greener, we have launched a partnership with Shougang Group and the University of Science and Technology, Beijing. This project aims to improve thermal and materials recovery in the steel industry, using heat energy which is now wasted to power the manufacturing process instead. To make the products of tomorrow lighter, we have built partnerships with Chinese scientists - holding the first UK-China symposium on polymer nanocomposites.

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These connections will ensure WMGs advances in carbon nanotubes and Chinese progress in aerogels will both help to deliver lightweight materials in industry. Most important of all, for any of these technologies to succeed, we need Chinese busi- nesses to train the future leaders to deploy these technology advances.

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培養下一代中國工程領導人

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在過去的三十年中,WMG一直與中國企業和大學合作開發培養下一代中國工程領導人。

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我們的聯合碩士培養項目是針對中國企業需求的高級學位課程。該項目與中國企業合作,已經實現了本地化。這意味著以中國為核心的世界級資質,更貼近當地經濟需求。30多年來,我一直與一些中國杰出的創新者和領導者合作。在他們的幫助下,我們與中國科學家、工程師和企業建立了牢固的合作伙伴關系。國家外國專家局的幫助對我們至關重要。我本人能夠獲得北京市人民政府“長城友誼獎”2017)和中國政府友誼獎(2017)這些榮譽,是我們共同的成就。

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更重要的是,我們的合作關系給科學研究、應用技術和工業進步帶來了實質性進步,我們與中國的持續伙伴關系將創造一個更綠色、更輕巧、更智能的世界經濟。

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Develop the Next Generation Chinese Engineering Leaders

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Over the last thirty years, my research group, WMG, has worked alongside Chinese businesses and Universities to de- velop the next generation of Chinese engineering leaders.

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Our Joint Masters programme is an advanced degree focused on Chinese business needs. It is delivered locally, working with Chinese enterprises. This means world-class, China-focussed qualifications that more relevant to local business needs. For more than three decades, I have worked with outstanding Chinese innovators and leaders. With their help, we have built strong partnerships with Chinese scientists, engineers and businesses. The work of SAFEA has been crucial to that success. Our shared achievements are the reason I have the distinction of receiving both the Rainbow Bridge Award and the Chinese Friendship Award.

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More importantly, our successful partnership has led to real ad- vances in scientific research, applied technology and industrial progress.

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Our continuing partnership means that together, we will help create a greener, lighter, smarter world economy.


責任編輯:左娜

來源:《國際人才交流》2018年3期



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《國際人才交流》雜志征稿啟事
創刊于1989年,是國內外公開發行的月刊,由國家外國專家局主管、國家外國專家局國外人才信息研究中心主辦。
國內統一刊號:
CN11-2642/C
國際標準刊號:
ISSN1001-0114
郵發代號:
82-444

以“訪天下英才,匯全球智慧”為宗旨,以服務國家智力引進工作和國際人才交流為使命,主要報道外國專家中國故事、國際合作項目、跨文化交流等內容。致力于打造一個以在華外國專家為主的外宣平臺,“講好中國故事,傳播好中國聲音”。
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人物(雙語)外國專家、國際高端人物的中國故事;
紀實:觀察、解析聚才引才的典型案例;
觀點:探討國際人才引進、交流等熱點話題;
讀書:書海泛舟,名家書評;
一帶一路:介紹一帶一路沿線國家的文化、歷史、經濟、貿易等;
往事:追溯引才精彩篇章,回顧專家魅力人生;
我與外教:展示外教生活,傳播中外友誼;
國際朋友說(雙語):與外國青年專家、留學生交流國際、國內話題,弘揚中國傳統文化;
我的中國故事(雙語):解讀中國現象,點評在華生活。

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